Antibodies, in response to vaccine, bind to spikes to prevent infection (PDB ID:7k8t, 7l2d, 7dzy)


When a virus enters into a human body, a human immune system produces special attacking proteins, called "antibodies". This neutralizing antibodies C002 bind to RBDs in spike protein, and inhibit the spike to bind the human receptors, and protect us against virus. Antibodies have a huge amount of their variants, each antibody has its own different binding sites and molecules. Another neutralizing antibody 1-87 bind to a different domain (NTD) of the spikes. Binding of some antibodies (2490) can enhance infectivity.

In nature, antibodies are produced after infection to the human body, however, a vaccination leads to the same effect. The standard RNA vaccine has a RNA molecule encoding the full lengh of the spike protein. After injection of the RNA vaccine, a human cell translates many spike proteins from the RNA molecule in the vaccine. Then, a human immune system starts to produce antibodies, which bind to the spike proteins. Most of the generated antibodies can prevent spikes to bind human receptors, and can protect us against the virus infection.

Neutralizing antibodies(C002) Neutralizing antibody(1-87) infectivity-enhancing antibodies(2490)
Spike proteins Antibodies Turn Stop